ファストファッションの裏側—無料のヒートテックを受け取るか

鎌田一帆

関西大学文学部英米文化専修3回生。小中高12年間サッカーに没頭し、大学からは英語に心変わり。E.S.S.の活動とフィリピン、オーストラリア、アメリカへの留学を経験し、めでたくバイリンガルに。

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こんにちは、鎌田です。

すっかり寒くなりました。朝起きてもベットから出たくなさ過ぎるあまり、アラームを止めずスヌーズに。二度寝を試みた結果見事に寝坊する…

なんて人がたくさんいるのではないでしょうか?(僕でした)

寒すぎて冬用の服を購入しようという人も多いと思います。

最近、大手服飾産業会社のユニクロが、100万人の学生(高校生以上対象)にヒートテックを無料で配布する!なんて企画を、友達伝いで聞きました。

友達に「やばいって!もらいに行こうぜ!」と言われたのですが、断りました。

一年前の自分ならしっぽを振って飛びついていたかもしれません。はい。確実に飛びついていたと思います。

しかし、その服が「誰」によって、「どんな環境」で作られているのかを知った僕は、「欲しい」とは思っても「無料で受け取る」ことはできませんでした。

ファストファッションの実態

僕が興味を持っている先生の講義でカルチュラルスタディーズというものがあります。

僕は英米文化を専攻しているので、主にアメリカとイギリスの文化について学ぶのですが、現在はその文化とも関係するスウェットショップについて学んでいます。

「いったいこのカタカナ語がユニクロとどんな関係にあるんだ?!」

と思った方のために簡単に説明させてください。

まずスウェットショップとは:企業がより高い利益を追求するために、第三国に工場を設置し現地の労働者を低賃金、劣悪な労働条件で働かせ、生産コストを最小限に抑えて利益を得ているシステムを批判した呼び方。(貿易用語辞典から引用)

要するに、めちゃめちゃ非人道的なシステムってことです…!

僕はこのスウェットショップの現状を、授業で観たドキュメンタリー映画『The True Cost』を通して知りました。

労働者たち(主に女性)は冷暖房もなく、有害化学染料が使われる工場で十五時間以上働いています。日給は数百円です。

信じられないですよね。

この映画に取り上げられたバングラディシュの女性が泣きながら言うのです。

「私たちの血でできた服を先進国の人たちに着てほしくない」と。

なぜ彼女はこんな非人道的な工場を辞めないのでしょうか?

フェアトレード専門ブランド・ピープルツリーの代表、サフィア・ミニー氏は「バングラデシュの縫製工場で働く女性労働者の大半は、生活費を稼ぐため働く機会がない地方の出身です。彼女たちは仕事を見つけるために都会に出るしか選択肢がありません。彼女たちは不潔な住宅に住んで、危険な工場で働いても自分たちの口をしのぐのがやっとなんです」 と述べています(詳しくはこちら)。

残業しなければ生きていけないほどの極小の給料しかもらっていないのに、その給料でさえ未払いなこともあるそうです。

さらに、現状が変わらなければ、将来、彼女の娘もこのようなところで働かされる可能性があります。彼女は「娘には同じ思いをして欲しくない」と言いつつ、つらい思いを抱えて働いています。

僕たちの生活とギャップがありすぎます。僕たちが多国籍企業のファストファッションを購入することが、彼女たちを苦しめることになるのです。

こんな非人道的なことが、なぜ世の中に現存し、許されているのでしょうか?

ナイキ商法

上記のような工場の存在する理由の1つとして、ナイキ商法と呼ばれるバイヤー(多国籍企業)とサプライヤー(委託工場)の関係があります。この商法を利用していることが最初に発覚したのがナイキだったため、この名前が付きました。

メディアを通して、多くの消費者に認知されるようになった手法です(詳しくはこちら)。

ざっくり言うと、次のような契約関係です。

多国籍企業は自社工場を持っておらず、現地の工場に、作って欲しい商品の「値段、量、作成期間」を委託工場に提示して商品を作らせる契約をします。工場で商品が作られ、それを多国籍企業が受け取ると契約終了。

わかりやすくて、どちらにも責任が無いWIN-WINな関係にも見えないことはないですが、決してそんなことはありません。

多国籍企業側には選択肢がありますが、委託工場側にはその選択肢が無いのです。

多国籍企業側は、工場で働く人たちの責任を負わずに、自分たちの理想的な値段や量の服を作成させることができます。

一方で委託工場側にとっては、多国籍企業の理想に従わないと成り立たない仕組みになっています。

 

というのも、多国籍企業側は工場に理想の条件を断られると、他の国や地域でもっと安く制作してくれるところに頼むことができるからです。

例えばですよ。

ユニクロが100円で10枚の商品を作ってくれと委託工場に頼んで、工場側が承諾したとします。

そこに、ユニクロの競争相手であるZARAが、ユニクロより安い値段で消費者に売るために90円で10枚の商品を作ってほしいとお願いします。

ここで値段が安いと言って工場側が断ってしまえば、ZARAはほかの委託工場にお願いするので、少なくとも得られるはずの利益が出ません。

いくら労働に見合わない値段を提示されても、断るよりはやるほうがましなのです。ですから、委託工場側は選択権がほぼないまま多国籍企業と契約を結んでいるのです。

このようにして安く請け負ってしまうと、工場で働く人の給料、その環境をよくするための費用を削減されます。

このようなナイキ商法の仕組みによって、働く人の人権や健康が脅かされるのです。

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